Caves, cliffs and rocks
The Elephant Cliff in Yaremche is an outcrop of flysch rocks on the western slope of Makovytsia Mount. It resembles an elephant by its shape, and hence it has got its name. The rock is up to 90 m high. It is formed of Cretaceous flysch and it is composed of argillites and siltstones. Flysch outcrops were formed over 60 million years ago.
Flysch is a special formation characterized by rhythmic layering of sedimentary rocks (sandstones, clays, clay shale, and conglomerates) that repeat hundreds of times in the geological section. Over millions of years, thick 5-7 km layers of flysch were accumulated on a sea bottom. As a result of new orogeny processes, which were intensively occured in the Paleogene period, these thick layers were raised to a considerable height and crumpled into folds, like frozen waves.
Dovbush rocks are rocky outcrops 5-7 meters high of huge Yamnensky sandstones on the southern slopes of Mount Makovytsia. These sandstones are about 65 million years old. Local rebels with their leader, called Oleksa Dovbush hid here from the Polish police, hence is a name of the geological monument. There are several viewing platforms near the rocks, which offer breathtaking views of the Carpathians!
Shpytsi Mount is one of the natural masterpieces of the Chornohora ridge. Its height is 1863 m.a.s.l.. The mountain is located in the very heart of the Chornohora massif. Its south-eastern slope is covered with 20-50 m high rocky ledges. There are more than 15 rows of ledges on the mountain slope. The rocks are formed mainly of the Oligocene Mahura sandstone. The main process of their formation occurred at times of the Pleistocene glaciation. Number of rock outcrops on the slopes of Spitz increases each year. This means that under an influence of exogenous processes, such as harsh climate of highlands, the rocks are being gradually destroyed.
Vukhatyi Kamin is a tract in the Chornohora massif at an altitude of 1864 m.a.s.l.. It is located in the southeastern part of the Chornohora ridge, on one of the spurs of Smotrych Mount, which stretch to the north and lies down into the valley of the village of Dzembronia. There are rocks with strange shapes on the top of the mountain and on its slopes, which are called "churches" by local inhabitants. The path from Dzembronia to the Chornohora ridge passes through Vykhatyi Kamin’s peak.